The Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka was founded at the inception of the University to help solve the problem of food and nutrition insecurity in the country as well as train the needed manpower in crop production. As one of the earliest departments in the University, the department is pioneering community awareness research and manpower training in various areas of crop research. The early establishment of the department in the University was expedient as the University was fashioned out of the land-grant university after Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan and was initially co-funded by the proceeds from palm produce of the defunct Eastern Nigeria.

As a land-grant university, the department was privileged upon inception to be equipped with didactic teaching and research facilities and experts from Michigan States University, USA to enhance the teaching and research in various areas of crop production (Crop production, Crop protection and Horticulture) and to ensure sustained food supply in the country. The Cardoso College of Agriculture was established as an academic unit in the Faculty of Science when the University was founded in October 1960. It assumed a full faculty status in 1961 with Department of Plant /Soil Sciences as one of the six departments in the faculty.

In 1974, Department of Crop Science was carved out of the Department of Plant /Soil Sciences. Since then the Department of Crop Science has been offering a five-year B. Agric degree with three sub-disciplines (options); Crop Production, Crop protection and Horticulture